What Is The Best Magnesium Supplement?

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magnesium supplementWhat Is The Best Magnesium Supplement? 

Magnesium is one of the most important nutrients for human health. I have covered this extensively on my website for years. After reading my articles, many people reach the conclusion that they would like to add a magnesium supplement to their daily regimen. If you go to a local supplement, health food, or online store you will notice there are A TON of different forms of magnesium. These are not all created equal. So, what is the best magnesium supplement for the most health benefits?

The different forms of magnesium are metabolized and have different effects in the body. Some provide negligible effects, some stronger, and some I would consider superior. This is something I observed early on when considering adding a magnesium supplement to my personal line.

The Fundamental Role Of Magnesium

I say magnesium is one of the most important nutrients in the human body all the time and there is a HUGE reason for this. One of the biggest predictors of your overall well-being is your body’s ability to create and utilize energy. From a cellular level, this energy comes in the form of a molecule called ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Your body is constantly operating within a balance of breaking down and rebuilding itself, a principal called homeostasis. On a very basic level, when you are breaking down faster than you are rebuilding, you have disease. When you are rebuilding as quickly as you are breaking down, you are thriving, adapting, and becoming stronger.

Every cell in your body relies on ATP in order to carry out its function. A fundamental principal of human physiology is that cells cannot effectively utilize ATP unless it is in its activated form, Mg-ATP. Magnesium actually binds to ATP and this important step allows our cells to use it more effectively.

Additionally, magnesium is intricately involved in the biological process of manufacturing ATP, so it could not be more crucial in this regard that you have enough magnesium to provide for the energy making process of almost every cell in your body. This is key in helping to optimize your body’s ability to heal and adapt.

Symptoms Of Deficiency 

Magnesium deficiency is often misdiagnosed because it is not easily detected in routine bloodwork. This is because almost all of the body’s magnesium is stored in the bones and organ tissues, particularly in the heart (1). It is estimated that only 1% of our total magnesium can actually be found floating around in the blood.

The organs in your body that require the most ATP include the brain, muscles (heart, digestive tract, skeletal muscle), and the ovaries if you are a woman.

Consequently, some of the most prominent symptoms of magnesium deficiency are brain fog, poor memory, trouble concentrating, muscle cramps/weakness, fibromyalgia, migraines/headaches, anxiety, depression, and PMS.

These are some of the common symptoms, however magnesium is also involved in over 300 different enzymatic processes in the body so symptoms of deficiency may vary widely. Some experts even claim that magnesium deficiency may contribute to over 20 different diagnosable medical conditions (2).

Why We Need More Than We Used To 

Although some magnesium can be obtained from the diet, there are a couple important reasons why I often recommend supplementation.

First, modern industrial farming practices have drastically depleted soil of its nutrient content, this means we are likely receiving much less than we used to.

Next, our environment is filled with new chemicals and biological stressors that increase our need for magnesium. These include things like EMF, pesticides, heavy metals, and general chronic stress involved with our chosen lifestyles. All of these things increase stress on our bodies, increase the need for ATP, and rapidly deplete magnesium stores as a consequence.

Supplementing with magnesium will help restore optimal levels to ensure effective energy production. Another cool thing I like about magnesium is that it can also improve your ability to adapt to a stressful lifestyle, similar to common herbal adaptogens.

Top Forms

There are A TON of different types of magnesium that are sold in stores. Many of these simply are not effective and will not do anything beneficial for your health. In fact, some forms of magnesium are not even absorbable by your digestive tract.

Below are some of my favorite forms of magnesium and the ones that are the most likely to benefit your health.


Magnesium malate is magnesium bonded to malic acid. Malic acid is naturally occuring in many foods, especially fruits. This form of magnesium is theorized to be best suited for improving energy-related disorders.

This is thought because malic acid is a key component of the Krebs Cycle. The Krebs Cycle is the biological process that is responsible for manufacturing ATP, AKA energy. This is where magnesium malate may be helpful in conditions such as chronic fatigue or depression.

Animal studies have observed that magnesium malate may provide benefits for blood sugar regulation and magnesium/calcium balance, making it a solid option for supplementation (3).


Magnesium Glycinate (or chelated magnesium) is a compound made up of magnesium and the amino acid glycine. This is thought to be one of the most bioavailable forms of magnesium for supplementation as well as one of the most gut friendly. Many people experience diarrhea with magnesium supplementation so this can be an important consideration.

For clinically diagnosable magnesium deficiency (hypomagnesia), the glycinate or bisglycinate form of magnesium are typically the most recommended for correcting this.


Magnesium L-threonate (MgT) is a newer form of magnesium with significant implications for mental health. Some preliminary research has highlighted the cognitive boosting ability and potentially even neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer’s disease (4).

What is so novel about this form of magnesium supplement is that it is the only form shown in animal studies to cross the blood brain barrier. This is important because having this capability allows it to exert its beneficial effects on the brain specifically.

Consequently, this form of magnesium supplement has been shown to improve measures of cognitive abilities such as short and long term memory and learning (5, 6). Additionally, this form of magnesium may be superior for conditions such as depression, anxiety, and brain fog.

In this article, I go over this 2010 study where a MgT supplemented group was able to retain their memory of where a submerged platform was hidden after 24 hours.  Both young and old rats in the control group forgot and began randomly searching through the maze and took more than twice as long as the MgT supplemented group.  The results of the study showed that old rats saw a 100% improvement in spatial long-term memory and even out performed younger rats who had not used MgT (5).   



Magnesium Citrate is one of the most commonly used forms of magnesium because it is relatively low cost while also being reasonably bioavailable when consumed orally.

This form of magnesium supplement is unique because it is one of the only ones that is naturally acidic. This is due to it being bound to citric acid, a common food additive that also occurs in citrus fruits.

Two noteable properties of this form of magnesium are its ability to aid in bowel movements as well as potentially help with oxalate metabolism. I often encounter patients who have kidney stones due high levels of dietary oxalates (more on this here) so this may be helpful for them.

While it may be beneficial for someone with kidney stones to supplement with magnesium citrate, I have actually found potassium citrate to be powerful for this. In combination, they may both provide benefits.


Adding a chloride to magnesium brings another broad-range support compound to the mix. When these two are broken down in the body, you get the benefits of both magnesium and chloride.  Magnesium chloride is the most stable form of magnesium and is especially good for detoxification and for kidney function.

Chloride ions are abundant in the human body. First of all, as an electrolyte, chloride ions help to assure the proper conduction of impulses within the nervous system. They work along with potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphate, and magnesium to assure proper muscle contraction, control blood pressure, and allow for healthy brain function.

Additionally, chloride combines with hydrogen in the gut to produce HCl (stomach acid). Adequate stomach acid is needed to properly digest our foods and to activate intrinsic factor for absorbing Vitamin B12.

Inferior Magnesium Forms

Forms of magnesium that are often cheap yet offer relatively low bioavailability include the oxide, dihydroxide (milk of magnesia), sulfate, aspartate, and carbonate forms.  These forms of magnesium do not absorb well and tend to offer little benefit beyond laxative or antacid properties.

Magnesium Sulfate (also known as epsom salt) may, however, be suitable for absorption through the skin. For a step above, in my opinion, I would recommend these Magnesium Chloride salts for soaking. They are more expensive but likely to be much more beneficial.

Before You Buy 

While there are many forms and many brands of magnesium available on the market that will likely provide you with benefit. There is one consideration that I find critically important however.

As with all supplements, it is important to ensure you are getting yours from a source that tests every batch to ensure you are getting what is on the label and nothing else. This includes things like unwanted toxins, allergens, and heavy metals.

All of my personal line products are pharmaceutical grade, GMP compliant. This means they are produced in strictly monitored facilities who also send batches of their product to third parties for analysis before selling to consumers.

Brain Calm Magnesium 

There are many different forms of magnesium and they seem to have slightly different effects in the body. When I decided to add a magnesium supplement to my personal line I wanted it to contain the best forms of magnesium to provide a well-rounded benefit.

Brain Calm Magnesium was the result of this. It contains patented malate, glycinate, and threonate forms of magnesium for maximum neurological and systemic benefits for the body.

I often recommend this supplement for most people as a cost-effective way to boost magnesium levels, increase the body’s resilience to stress, and promote a tranquil and relaxed mental state. 

Topical Magnesium Chloride 

If you are someone with a lot of digestive issues, you may want to consider a topical magnesium. This type of magnesium supplement can be applied directly to the skin and absorbed into your blood stream for increased bioavailability.

This type of magnesium supplement is also great for applying to tense muscles, aches, and pains. For this purpose, I have found that the Ancient Minerals brand works the best.

The topical magnesium with MSM is the best for applying to problem areas or as a general magnesium supplement. The combination of magnesium and MSM is powerful for controlling inflammation and strengthening damaged tissues. This form is also very suitable for athletes!

For those who have trouble sleeping at night, Ancient Minerals also carries a topical magnesium with melatonin. For this one I will typically recommend applying one pump to the bottoms of the feet or abdomen 30 minutes to 1 hour before going to bed.

Top Magnesium Foods 

While magnesium supplementation is often a great idea, eating the right foods is just as important.

In the video below I go into detail on my favorite dietary sources. For convenience, I have listed my top 12 below.

  1. Swiss Chard
  2. Spinach
  3. Grass-fed Dairy
  4. Avocados
  5. Pumpkin Seeds
  6. Pink Salts
  7. Nuts
  8. Dark Chcolate
  9. Wild-Caught Fish
  10. Sprouts
  11. Sea Vegetables
  12. Organic Coffee

Sources For This Article Include: 

1. The AFIB Report: Magnesium
2. Magnesium: An Invisible Deficiency That Could Be Harming Your Health (LINK)
3. Virag, V., May, Z., Kocsis, I., Blazovics, A., & Szentmihalyi, K. (2011). [Effects of magnesium supplementation on calcium and magnesium levels, and redox homeostasis in normolipidemic and food-induced hyperlipidemic rats]. Orv Hetil, 152, 1075–1081. PMID: 21676674
4. Li W, Yu J, Liu Y, et al. Elevation of brain magnesium prevents synaptic loss and reverses cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. Mol Brain. 2014 Sep 13;7(1):65. PMID:25213836
5. Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. 2010 Jan 28;65(2):165-77. PMID:20152124
6. Abumaria N, Yin B, Zhang L, et al. Effects of elevation of brain magnesium on fear conditioning, fear extinction, and synaptic plasticity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala. J Neurosci. 2011 Oct 19;31(42):14871-81. PMID:22016520

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  1. I have used m.threonate and experienced muscle weakness but in theory would help with sleep and brain fog.
    I have tried an oil and the first spray I got weak all over.
    I take an algae calcium supplement with mag aspartate 400mg which the company says is fine. My osteoporosis has improved with algae calcium.
    I would like to try yours but wondering why the weakness. Is it too much mag on top of the 400 aspartate? Most algae calcium supplements have 400 mg mag in some form added on top of the algae which has some naturally.
    Thanks for any advice.

  2. Wonderful explanation of the different delivery systems for that Neesey him. I really appreciate the way you have presented this information. Thank you very much.

  3. Is there any insight as to how much magnesium intake daily is optimal? Are there any risks with over supplementation with magnesium? Are there any vitamins or herbs that should not be taken at the same time as magnesium, and conversely, besides Vitamin C, are there any that should be taken with magnesium for additional benefits?

    1. Good question, for many people using my Brain Calm magnesium I will recommend 1-2 servings daily which is 1-2 grams of magnesium respectively. Magnesium is extremely safe and a sign of taking too much is usually just loose stools. Magnesium works in conjunction with many nutrients for different processes in the body such as B-vitamin, Calcium, Vitamin D, and Vitamin-K.

  4. Hi Dr. Jockers! I love this article about Magnesium supplementation. I am currently taking a Magnesium supplement with the Magnesium form Bentonite. Do you know anything about this form? Thank you.

  5. Hi Dr. Jockers,

    I’m curious to know what the Brain Calm Magnesium tastes like? My husband has lived with insomnia for years. He usually doesn’t have trouble falling asleep, but sleeps for only a couple of hours and after that he says he wakes up often. If the taste is pleasant, I would probably have him try it for sure!

    Thank you!

  6. I have been having heart rate issues (racing and irregularity) and fatigue, and just came off of a particular birth control that depletes calcium as well. What would you recommend?

  7. Hi!, my 20 year old son got seizures, since 1year old, and he is taking carbamazapine 200mg (3x a day) and leviterecitam 500mg (3x a day) also, I want to try giving him magnesium, just want to know what’s best for my son thank you. Please email me

  8. Dr. Jockers, thank you for this magnesium information. Can an 11 y/o take this supplement ? My grandson has trouble sleeping and he has stomach pains from time to time for a few days. He just had a regular physical and was ‘fine’ (?)…..he does well in school but seems to have anxiety sometimes. He has normal weight and height but could improve with his diet being pasta, pizza, etc. Thankfully he loves broccoli and peas. Thank you Doctor for all you do and for your passion to help others. Angel and the boys are adorable ! Waiting for that new baby now. God Bless, Jan

    1. Hey Jan, yes the diet will definitely need to be addressed and with sleep issues make sure he is getting sunlight, especially first thing in the morning and avoid artificial light at night (phones, tv, computers, etc.) As for the magnesium, he should be able to do 2 1/2 scoops in water daily no problem. The only negative affect is loose stools if taken in excess!

  9. My son had Rhabdomyolysis a year ago that affected his muscles. He continues to have issues with his muscles. He is very active with Strength training and participates in two sports at the moment. He is tight, has muscle fatigue, sleep issues and is pain. Which kind of magnesium would be best for him.

    1. Hey Lisa, he may be over excepting himself. In that case, lowering his workload may be helpful. Some other things that may helpful are using a good amino acid supplement such as this one: https://store.drjockers.com/products/amino-strong

      As for the magnesium, a combination of oral in the forms mentioned in the article as well as the topical magnesium with MSM applied to the problem areas can be helpful: https://store.drjockers.com/products/magnesium-oil-ultra-msm

  10. Hi Dr. Jockers,

    My six-year-old grandson is very hyper active. While he is performing well at school academically, he is very fidgety and annoying which ends him up in the principals office often. Which magnesium would you recommend and what does to try to help calm him? His parents are all about natural healing as am I and are being pushed towards a diagnosis of ADHD. I don’t want to see him and up on medications

  11. Dr. Jockers, I suffer from Rheumatoid Arthritis badly on my feet and hands to the point that I can barely walk. Epsom salt help a tiny bit but I am looking for something much better and refuse to take Humira. Something pure and natural that may even help with short and long term memory. What would you suggest?

  12. I am looking in taking a magnesium to help with digestive issues. I have tried citrate, but it seems to always upset my stomach. Do you suggest another form that would be better?

  13. I enjoyed reading your article. I find things to be overwhelming and I suffer from anxiety/panic attacks and depression. I was recommended to take a magnesium supplement but like I said, I am overwhelmed at the different types. I also have digestive issues, trouble sleeping, and low energy.
    What would you recommend I take?

  14. My Dad has Parkinson’s Disease,and dimentia.He also has tremors that keep him from sleeping, which magnesium do you recommend?Is there anything else you think he should take other than magnesium?He’s currently taking meds. from his doctor, but I don’t think they are doing much.

  15. Dr Jockers,
    I am a 62 year female and I have suffered from chronic constipation my whole life. My Gastro Dr recommended Miralax and I unfortunately took that for multiple years! have been off of it the past year or so with the recommendation of taking Mag Citrate supplements from my chiropractor. Thank goodness! That stuff is horrible! The Mag Citrate does really help but I need to take it at quite large doses nightly with taking at least 1,000 mg nightly in order to have a decent bowel movement the next day. Is this harmful? I am very interested in the Brain Calm as I do have some of the other issues you describe with having magnesium deficiency. Will the Brain Calm help with my major issue of constipation? Thank you for your time!

  16. Hi Dr.
    Thank you for your informative article!! Citrate worked for my constipation but before I knew it I had bad diarrhea. Had to stop the citrate to stop the diarrhea and it was a very vicious cycle! Dosage change didn’t help. Stopped it completely and started on oxide. Keeps me fairly regular but I see is on the list of the worst I could use.
    What do you recommend?

    Also, I’m a bit confused. Do you suggest we take all 7 different mag types you have listed? If so would that mean 7 separate bottles and pills. How do we know which to take? I wish there was a supplement that had all in it.
    Thanks so much for your time!! I hope you’re able to have time to answer my questions.

    1. No, I would suggest taking 1 or more of the forms of the 7 types. Many blends contain several of them. You don’t need a separate supplement with all the forms.

      1. Thank you very much for your reply, Doctor!
        So if I’m understanding you correctly, you’re suggesting one or more of the ones you’ve listed, OR one that has a few already blended together. Is this correct?
        Thank you SO much again!!

  17. Hi! I am just curious how long it takes to start noticing improvement after starting a Magnesium regimen? Thank you for you help!

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